Theory of Computing
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Title : On the Power of a Unique Quantum Witness
Authors : Rahul Jain, Iordanis Kerenidis, Greg Kuperberg, Miklos Santha, Or Sattath, and Shengyu Zhang
Volume : 8
Number : 17
Pages : 375-400
URL : https://theoryofcomputing.org/articles/v008a017
Abstract
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In a celebrated paper, Valiant and Vazirani (1985) raised the
question of whether the difficulty of NP-complete problems was
due to the wide variation of the number of witnesses of their
instances. They gave a strong negative answer by showing that
distinguishing between instances having zero or one witnesses is as
hard as recognizing NP, under randomized reductions.
We consider the same question in the quantum setting and
investigate the possibility of reducing quantum witnesses in the
context of the complexity class QMA, the quantum analogue of
NP. The natural way to quantify the number of quantum witnesses is
the dimension of the witness subspace $W$ in some appropriate
Hilbert space $H$. We present an efficient deterministic procedure
that reduces any problem where the dimension $d$ of $W$ is bounded
by a polynomial to a problem with a unique quantum witness. The
main idea of our reduction is to consider the Alternating subspace
of the tensor power $H^{\otimes d}$. Indeed, the intersection of
this subspace with $W^{\otimes d}$ is one-dimensional, and
therefore can play the role of the unique quantum witness.